The Rhineland model

Historically, the Perspectives Project (2016-present) originated in work we (Cor Baars and Joop Ringelberg) did for the Dutch National Police (2013-2015). Working as main Architect and lead programmer respectively, we created a foundation for the new software to be used by all 60.000 officers (the so-called OPP program, frequently in the news: see e.g. this article). Cor perceived the police officer primarily as a knowledge worker, rather than as a production worker, as was the received wisdom at the time. But a police officer is involved in many cases at any time, switches context all the time and must rely on his own judgement continuously. This kind of work can never be captured in a step by step process model but instead relies on knowledge, insight and judgement.

From this background, eventually, during the years 2016-2018, the core Perspectives concepts of role, context, action, view, perspective and property emerged. These are the abstractions of the original ideas of (police) files, the RACI model, tasks, etc. that we used to describe the world of maintaining the law and criminal investigation.

I just read the booklet “The Rhineland Model” by Jaap Peters and Mathieu Weggeman and was struck by how this vision of organisation chimes with Perspectives core concepts. Just look at this list of Rhineland core values:

  • decentralise responsibility and power;
  • focus on employee needs and wants;
  • promote co-operation;
  • co-ordinate on lower levels: do not rule top-down;
  • put value on worker initiative
  • communicate laterally versus vertically.

The Rhineland model moves away from process models with fixed steps. It sees an organisation as a co-operation and strives towards decentral decision making. In hindsight, even though the police organisation formally has a hierarchical structure, on the operational level it is very much Rhineland oriented.

Perspectives lets you analyse co-operative work in terms of role and context. (Formal) organisations only come secondary or tertiary in the picture: organisational bounds are unimportant as employees of any organisation transcend its organisational borders (it has to interact with the world, right?). So a context in which both employees and customers, or employees of other organisations, play a role is a natural analysis. Roles are defined in terms of the actions they can perform – which we call the role perspective on the context. Process flow is only secondary, in Perspectives: we assume roles are fulfilled by knowledgeable workers.

With Perspectives, one designs (and generates!) software that supports co-operation, that is: real interaction on the work floor. This software empowers workers by enabling (structured) communication over a distance in space and time.

It may be no exaggeration to state that Perspectives is to the Rhineland model what the Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) is to the Anglo-American model. Where the latter focusses on top-down driven, centrally designed process flow with minimal local decision power, the former enables knowledge workers in context.

In other words, Perspectives may be a natural language to describe an organisation adhering to Rhineland values. With the bonus of working software as a result, of course!

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